Scientific Knowledge in Sociology: Problem Statement

The article opens a cycle of publications, which analyze the similarities and differences between the two wide spread modern approaches to the description of society - sociological and informational ones. Both approaches have the same methodological problem to be solved. The problem of expressing hidden knowledge about society that participants in social processes operate with the help of natural language in the course of social communication. In order to harmonize sociological and informational approaches of describing society, it was proposed any natural language statements involved in describing society to be arranged according to the basic principle of information technology - modularity. The proposed way of harmonizing informational and sociological methods of building knowledge about society is invoked by the need to solve two scientific problems formulated in sociology itself - the constructability of social objects and the complexity of social relationships. The paper's methodological proposals are embodied in their computer realization, which practical application is demonstrated in other publications of the authors.


  • Allais M. (1994) Sovremennaya ekonomicheskaya nauka i fakty[La science economique d'aujourd'hui et les faits]. THESIS. №2. V. 4. P. 11-19.
  • Beniaminov E.M., Lapshin V.A. (2012) Urovni predstavleniya ontologiy, yazykov, matematicheskikh modeley i proyekta veb-servera ontologii v stile Web 2.0. [Representation levels of ontologies, languages, mathematical models, and the Web 2.0 ontology server in the style of Web 2.0.]. NTI. Series 2. Information processes and systems. Moscow: № 3.
  • Berger P., Luckmann T. (1966) Social Construction of Reality. A treatise on the sociology of knowledge. PenguinBooks.
  • Castells M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture Vol. I. Cambridge, MA; Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Doan A., Ramakrishnan R., Halevy A. (2011) Crowdsourcing systems on the World-Wide Web. Communications of the ACM, April, vol. 54 Issue 4, pp. 86-96.
  • Filmer P., Phillipson M., Silverman D., Walsh D. (1974) New Directions in Sociological Theory. MIT Press.
  • Gaydenko P. P., Davydov YU. N. (2006) Istoriya i ratsional'nost': sotsiologiya Maksa Vebera i veberovskiy renessans [History and Rationality: Max Weber's Sociology and the Weberian Renaissance]. M.: KomKniga.
  • Golod S.I. (2012) Sem'ya: prokreatsiya, gedonizm, gomoseksualizm [Family: Procreation, Hedonism, Homosexuality]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsial'noy antropologii [Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology]. V. 15. №2. P. 20-38.
  • Gruber, Th.(1993) A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications.
  • Kanygin G.V. (2010) Nenablyudayemost' sotsial'nykh fenomenov [Non-Observability of Social Phenomena]. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. №5. P. 26-33.
  • Kanygin G.V. (2016) Komp'yuternyye metody v sotsiologii [Computer Methods in Sociology]. Yadovskie reading: the prospects of sociology. Collection of scientific reports of the conference, St. Petersburg, December 14-16, 2015 / Eds: O. Bozhkov, S Yaroshenko, V. Bocharova. SPb.: Publishing house "Eidos". P. 343-354.
  • Kanygin G.V., Poltinnikova M.S. (2016) Kontekstno-oriyentirovannyye ontologicheskiye metody v sotsiologii [Context-Oriented Ontological Methods in Sociology]. Trudy SPIIRAN [SPIIRAS Proceedings]. Issue 48. C. 107-124.
  • Kanygin G.V., Poltinnikova M.S., Koretskaya V.S. (2017) [Opyt postroyeniya sotsial'nogo znaniya na osnove komp'yuternykh ontologicheskikh metodov] Experience of Building Social Knowledge Based on Computer Ontological Methods. Sotsiologicheskiy zhurnal [Sociological Journal], Vol. 23. No. 3. P. 125-143.
  • Kravchenko A. I. (2016) Metafory v sotsiologii: novyye perspektivy ili put' v nikuda? [Metaphors in Sociology: New Perspectives or the Way to Nowhere?]. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. № 7. P. 124-133.
  • Lakoff G. (1993) Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. Metaphor and Thought/ ed. by A. Ortony. –2nd edition. –Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 202 –251.
  • Nechaeva N.A. (2018) Obshchiye zhiznennyye ustanovki studencheskoy molodezhi: ikh rol' v semeynykh i gendernykh predstavleniyakh [Common Life Attitudes of Students: Their Role in Family and Gender Perceptions]. Peterburgskaya sotsiologiya segodnya [Petersburg Sociology Today]. Collection of scientific papers. Issue 9. Nestor History. St. Petersburg. P. 6-26.
  • Noy  N.F. and McGuinness D.L. (2000) Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology, (accessed 21.01.2019).
  • Raskov V.E. (2007) Upravleniye znaniyami kak samostoyatel'naya oblast' issledovaniy: osnovnyye problemnyye voprosy [Knowledge Management as an Independent Area of Research: Main Issues of Concern]. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta. Menedzhment [Bulletin of the St. Petersburg University. Management]. Ser. 8. Issue 3. P. 34-58.
  • Teoriya metafory[The theory of Metaphor] (1990) / Ed. N.D. Arutyunova, M.A. Zhurinskoy. M.: Progress Publishing House.
  • Urry J. (2004) The Complexities of the Global. Department of Sociology, Lancaster University, Lancaster (The Complexities of the Global - urry-complexities-global.pdf).
  • Wagner C. (2006) Breaking the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck Through Conversational Knowledge Management. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(1), 70-83.
  • Weber M. (1913) Webereinige Kategorien der verstehenden Soziologie. Logos 4(3): 253-94.
  • Zolo D. (2010) Demokratiya i slozhnost': realisticheskiy podkhod [Democracy and Complexity: a Realistic Approach] / trans. from English A. Kalinina (foreword, ch. I – IV), N. Edelman (ch. V, conclusion), M. Yusim (preface to the Russian edition); State Univ - Higher School of Economics. - Moscow: Higher School of Economics.